Heart Attack: Symptoms, Causes, Types, Treatments, and Recovery.

What is a Heart Attack?

Heart attack (myocardial infarction) occurs when a part of the heart muscle fails to receive enough blood or enough oxygen. This happens because the flow of blood into the heart muscle gets blocked.

The more-more time it takes to get blood flow back to normal without treatment, the more injury to heart muscles.


The most prominent signs that a heart attack is characterized most common symptoms of heart attacks are:

  • The chest may be painful or uncomfortable: Most in all heart attacks, there is a feeling of discomfort present in the center or the left-hand side. It lasts for a couple of minutes or disappears. The discomfort may feel like intense pressure, discomfort swelling, or pain.
  • Breathlessness: This commonly is accompanied by chest discomfort However, breath shortness may also occur prior to chest pain.
  • Feeling lightheaded and weak or You may even break out in a sweat.
  • Inflammation or pain in the neck, jaw, or in back.
  • Ailment or discomfort that affects either both shoulders or arms.


The blockage occurs by the plaque build-up that is composed of deposits of fatty substances (collection of cholesterol and fat) within the blood vessels. This condition is called (atherosclerosis) it is known as a heart-related disease that requires treatment of atherectomy, When plaque is broken (ruptures) and a blood clot is formed quickly, a blood clot is a primary reason for Heart attacks.

If the oxygen and blood flow is interrupted, the muscle cells in the heart start to get damaged and eventually cease to function. Damage that is irreparable begins after 30 minutes of obstruction. The result is that the heart muscle that is affected by the absence of oxygen does not function in the way it ought to.


Genetic or inheritance-related causes are the risk factors you were born with and can’t be altered however, this condition could be ameliorated through medical treatment and an active lifestyle.

These groups are the most susceptible to heart attacks:

  • People who have inherited hypertension High blood pressure is a genetic condition.
  • Unhealthy blood cholesterol, mostly LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol is thought of as “bad” cholesterol because it may cause plaque to build up in your arteries, This is the main cause of heart attacks.
  • People with diabetes mellitus
  • People who have a family background of cardiovascular disease, This is particularly relevant if the heart condition was diagnosed before age 55.
  • Older people both (men and women)
  • Women who are menopausal are at a higher risk of suffering from heart attacks, the risk for men is in their younger age.
  • Obesity.
heart attack


Risk factors that are acquired result from activities that we include in our lives that are addressed through lifestyle modifications as well as medical care, these groups are most at risk:

  • People who have acquired excessive blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Consuming a diet rich in trans fats, cholesterol
  • Alcohol consumption, smoking cigarettes, tobacco, or eating cigarettes can increase blood pressure levels and increase the chance of developing cardiovascular disease.
  • People who have too much pressure People who are stressed out
  • Obesity-People overweight by 30% or more
  • People suffering from diabetes Meletus Type 2 

Common Heart Attack Types

The kind of heart attack (also known as myocardial infarction or MI) the heart attack you suffered determines the treatment options that your doctor will suggest, kinds of heart attacks include:

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)

Complete blockage in a coronary artery is a sign that you have suffered a “STEMI” heart attack or ST-elevation myocardial injury.

Myocardial injury (NSTEMI)

An incomplete blockage can be an “NSTEMI” heart attack or an incident that is not a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction.

The STEMI as well as NSTEMI heart attacks could cause enough damage to be considered major heart attacks.

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction STEMI (major heart attack)

An ST-elevation myocardial injury (STEMI) can be described as a form of heart attack that’s more severe and has an increased risk of complications and even death. When people imagine a heart attack then they imagine a STEMI, It mostly affects the lower chambers of the heart and alters the way electrical current flows through the heart’s lower chambers.

In the event of a delay, receiving treatment could result in an irreparable injury to the muscle of your heart or the death of the heart muscle.

A STEMI can be described as a myocardial heart attack that results in an identifiable pattern in an electrocardiogram (abbreviated by ECG or EKG)

The symptoms and signs of a STEMI

The symptoms that can be associated with chest pain are:

  • nausea
  • breathlessness
  • anxiety
  • light-headedness
  • exchanging an uncontrollable sweat

The majority of people suffering from a heart attack wait up to two hours or more for assistance. The delay could cause permanent heart damage or even death Therefore, consult a physician immediately.

Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)

Non-ST-elevation myocardial ischemia is a form of heart attack that occurs in the event that a section of your heart isn’t receiving sufficient oxygen, The condition is named due to the fact that in contrast to an ST elevation myocardial artery infarction (STEMI heart attack) It doesn’t cause a specific identifiable change in the electrical activity of your heart.

In some cases, further treatment with coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) may be recommended in cases of NSTEMI or unstable angina, after initial treatment with these medicines.

The symptoms and signs of NSTEMI

Heart attacks are a common occurrence typically described by the following signs:

  • Chest Pain
  • Feeling out of breath
  • Nausea, stomach pain, or discomfort (may appear like indigestion, and heartburn).
  • Feeling dizzy or lightheaded.

Heart Attack Medications

Heart attacks that are less severe may be treated with medications. Your physician will prescribe medication based on your health as well as risk factors and general health, These medications could include:

  • In order to lower cholesterol levels in LDL, Statins are given.
  • Anti-clotting drugs-This include aspirin and other blood-thinning medications.
  • Nitro-glycerine-This medication is used to alleviate chest discomfort, It also acts as a vasodilator. This means it makes blood vessels larger which allows blood to flow more quickly.
  • The thrombolytic (clot-busting) medication-The intravenous (IV) drugs cause blood clots to dissolve and break down, These drugs are usually prescribed in one hour following an attack of the heart.
  • Antiarrhythmic medicines- Heart attacks typically cause malfunctions in your heart’s rhythm of the normal beat known as arrhythmias. Arrhythmias that are not properly controlled can cause serious harm. Antiarrhythmic medication can stop or delay these issues.
  • Pain medication -The most commonly used painkiller used in the treatment of heart attacks is morphine. This medication can relieve chest discomfort.

Types Of Cardiac Surgery (Treatment)

If you’ve experienced an attack on your heart, your doctor might recommend the procedure (surgery or non-surgical). These procedures can ease discomfort and prevent another heart attack from happening.

Common procedures include:

  • Angioplasty– an angioplasty is a procedure of opening an artery that is blocked by the use of balloons or by eliminating plaque, The plaque build-up is removed.
  • Stent– an attached wire mesh tube to open an artery during the procedure of angioplasty.
  •  Angioplasty Laser –this procedure is similar to angioplasty, except that the catheter comes with an open-ended laser tip. the artery that is blocked.
  • Artificial heart valve surgery- A damaged or diseased heart valve is replaced with a healthy one.
  • Atherectomy- is typically advised following angioplasty or the stent is similar to angioplasty, except that the catheter comes with an opening laser that can open the artery that is blocked. the artery.
  • Heart bypass surgery– The bypass procedure redirects the blood from the obstruction to the heart muscle.
  • Cardiomyoplasty– is an experimental procedure that uses skeleton muscles from a patient’s back.
  • Radiofrequency ablation– Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) is a non-invasive procedure that can be carried out in a doctor’s office or in a hospital. Patients typically return home that next day.
  • Heart transplant- A heart transplant is a surgery in which a healthy heart of an organ donor is placed in the place of the diseased heart of a patient.

Here are some ways to lower your risk of Heart Attacks:

  • Check out the risk factors that apply to you and decide to eliminate or decrease them.
  • Find out more concerning high blood pressure and cholesterol levels. These could constitute “silent killers”.
  • Risk factors for change that aren’t passed down through lifestyle changes. Discuss with your physician for advice on how to accomplish this.
  • Consult your doctor to determine if you have risk factors that cannot be altered, these are manageable by taking medication and making lifestyle changes. 


The process of recovery usually occurs in stages. It begins at the hospital, where your condition is closely monitored, and your personal requirements for the future will be evaluated. After you have been discharged from the hospital you are able to keep recovering at your home.

The primary goals of the process of recovery are the following:

  • To gradually improve your physical fitness until you can return to regular routine activities (known as cardiac rehabilitation)
  • To lower the risk of a heart attack. This will lower the risk of another heart

Symptoms of heart attacks can be deceiving and difficult to understand. The good news is that the medical field has produced huge advances in the understanding and types of cardiac surgery. Treatment methods, medications, and the science’s understanding of the heart are constantly progressing so your chances for a successful result are constantly getting better. If you or someone you love is experiencing signs of an attack on the heart, contact to get medical assistance immediately.

Remember that your doctor is a partner in your recovery, so don’t hesitate to ask them questions Divine Heart & Multispeciality Hospital, Heart hospital in Lucknow offers different specialties in cardiology, Cardiovascular surgery, and many more, book an appointment with a cardiologist.

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